Bunions and hammer toes are the bread and butter of a podiatrist. Pes Cavus is caused by muscle imbalances in the lower leg and foot that draws the front of the foot, or sometimes draws the heel
downward, making the arch higher than normal. Foot pain, known as metatarsalgia, usually occurs between the arch and the toe.
Unlike edible fungi or mushrooms that live on dead vegetable matter, the fungi and yeast that infect the feet are specialized dermatophytes, meaning that they only feed on keratinized tissue such as
hair, skin and nails. Fungal infection in the foot can be confined to the nails and may then spread to the skin, or the other way round, starting on the skin and then infecting the nails. Other names
are tinea unguium, dermatophytic onychia, dermatophytosis of the nail, or ringworm of the nail. In the case of dermatophyte fungi and yeast, small invasions are usually dealt with by your body's own
natural resistance or defence mechanisms, provided you have a healthy immune system at the time. The first sign of fungal infection in the nails is a slight discolouration of the nail plate. Remember
that pressure or friction is the cause of callous.
Sometimes, the pressure of the corn or callus may cause inflammation, which can result in pain, swelling and redness. The body protects skin tissues from pressure or friction damage by producing an
area of hard skin. So unless the cause of the pressure or friction is found and removed, calluses and corns will continue to form. Over-the-counter treatments, such as corn plasters, can damage the
healthy surrounding skin if you use them incorrectly. Look at and feel each foot for signs of injury including bruises, blisters, broken or cracked skin, hot or cold areas, corns and calluses, and
discolouration. If your eyesight is poor, get someone else to check your feet for you. Tinea is a contagious fungal infection of the skin. It usually develops between the toes and along the arch of
Metatarsal pads, soft insole inserts, and modifying standing areas with a soft surface (e.g., a rubber floor mat) may relieve the discomfort of tender calluses. Custom-moldedarch supports (called
orthotics ) or over-the-counter arch supports may help if flatfeet contribute to the problem. If one of the metatarsals is too low, an orthotic cutout can equalize pressure on the ball of the foot.
Because the thickness of the callus causes pressure, reducing the overgrown tissue by soaking the feet in warm water and filing down the callus with a pumice stone to smooth down the thick tissue may
be helpful. In severe cases, podiatrists may use a device called a sterile surgical blade to remove the outer layers of thickened skin. In some cases, one of the metatarsals may be too low or too
poorly positioned for orthotics to work.
Well, corns (Heloma) are small and round: they also have a hard thickening bit of skin in the middle and are very painful. They usually affect your smaller toes; and wearing poorly fitted shoes can
cause excessive friction and rubbing of the skin to form a corn. When people opt to use products containing Aloe Vera, such as gels and creams, they can prevent and remove corns. Common foot problems
and nail deformities in our aging population.